Application of ASU 2016-15 to the sale of trade receivables to multi-seller commercial paper conduit structures
Financial Reporting Alert 18-5
This alert addresses issues associated with the application of the guidance in FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-15, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, on beneficial interests in securitization transactions, particularly for entities that have sold trade receivables to a multi-seller commercial paper conduit structure.
In August 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-15, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. The ASU’s guidance is effective as follows:
- For public business entities, it is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years.
- For all other entities, it is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019.
Thus, the guidance is effective for calendar-year-end public business entities whose first quarter ended March 31, 2018. It must be applied retrospectively to all periods presented unless it is impracticable to do so; entities may then apply it prospectively as of the earliest date practicable.
Questions have arisen regarding how to apply the ASU’s guidance on beneficial interests in securitization transactions, particularly for entities that have sold trade receivables to a multiseller commercial paper conduit structure. This Financial Reporting Alert addresses those implementation issues.
The ASU amended ASC 230-10-45-12(a) and ASC 230-10-50-4 to require (1) disclosure of a transferor’s beneficial interest obtained in a securitization of financial assets as a noncash activity and (2) classification of cash receipts from payments on a transferor’s beneficial interests in securitized trade receivables as cash inflows from investing activities. As amended, ASC 230-10-45-12(a) states that cash inflows from investing activities include the following (added text is underscored):
a. Receipts from collections or sales of loans made by the entity and of other entities’ debt instruments (other than cash equivalents, certain debt instruments that are acquired specifically for resale as discussed in paragraph 230-10-45-21, and certain donated debt instruments received by not-for-profit entities (NFPs) as discussed in paragraph 230-10-45-21A) and collections on a transferor’s beneficial interests in a securitization of the transferor’s trade receivables.
As amended, ASC 230-10-50-4 states the following (added text is underscored):
Examples of noncash investing and financing transactions are converting debt to equity; acquiring assets by assuming directly related liabilities, such as purchasing a building by incurring a mortgage to the seller; obtaining an asset by entering into a capital lease; obtaining a beneficial interest as consideration for transferring financial assets (excluding cash), including the transferor’s trade receivables, in a securitization transaction; obtaining a building or investment asset by receiving a gift; and exchanging noncash assets or liabilities for other noncash assets or liabilities.
An entity that has sold trade receivables to a multi-seller commercial paper conduit structure must apply this guidance as well as the requirements in ASC 230-10-45-16(a).
While commercial paper conduit structures may differ, common features of such programs include the following:
- An entity (the “seller”) transfers trade receivables to a nonconsolidated securitization entity. Such transfers qualify as sales under ASC 860.
- The seller transfers trade receivables at the inception of its involvement with the securitization entity and continues to transfer trade receivables to the securitization entity as frequently as daily. The securitization entity also receives collections from the seller’s trade receivables previously sold as frequently as daily.
- The seller continues to service the trade receivables sold to the securitization entity.
- For each trade receivable transferred to the securitization entity, the seller has the right to receive cash at a maximum advance rate. The maximum advance rate, which is determined by a formula in the agreements related to the securitization, represents the maximum amount of cash the seller can receive upon the transfer of trade receivables to the securitization entity. If the amount of cash available from the securitization entity to purchase trade receivables from the seller on a particular day is less than the maximum advance rate, the seller is entitled to only the available cash upon transfers of trade receivables to the securitization entity.
- The amount of cash received by the seller upon each sale of trade receivables to the securitization entity is referred to as the cash purchase price (CPP), and the remaining consideration received for the transfer of trade receivables is represented by a deferred purchase price (DPP). The DPP represents a beneficial interest in the securitization entity.
- After the initial transfer of trade receivables at the inception of the seller’s involvement with the securitization entity, the cash available to pay the CPP related to transfers of trade receivables is generally limited to the amount of cash received from collections of trade receivables previously sold to the securitization entity. To the extent that there are insufficient “same day” collections to fund the maximum advance rate, the entity will legally receive an additional DPP interest.
- Any cash collections on previously transferred trade receivables that exceed the maximum advance rate for that same day’s trade receivables sold to the securitization entity are held in an escrow account until each periodic settlement date.
- The settlement period is monthly. At the end of each monthly settlement period, the amounts in the escrow account are disbursed to (or retained by) the seller, the administrative agent of the conduit and other service providers, and the conduit in accordance with the terms of the securitization entity. The amount of cash in the escrow account to which the seller is entitled represents repayments of DPP amounts and, to some extent, a deferred payment of CPP amounts related to days on which the cash available as CPP for transfers of trade receivables was less than the maximum advance rate because the collections on trade receivables previously sold on that particular day were insufficient to pay the maximum advance rate.
The guidance in ASU 2016-15 is not clear regarding the unit of account for determining the portions of each transfer of trade receivables to a securitization entity that represent CPP (i.e., operating activities) and DPP (i.e., investing activities). Therefore, we understand that the following two primary views have emerged:
- View A: The unit of account is each day’s transactional activity — An entity evaluates each day’s transactional activity to determine the CPP and DPP portions of trade receivables transferred to the securitization entity. Thus, if the cash available from a particular day’s collections of previously sold trade receivables is not sufficient to fund the maximum advance rate on that day’s trade receivables sold to the securitization entity, that deficit will reflect a noncash investing activity, which, when collected, will represent an investing activity.
- View B: The unit of account is each month’s transactional activity — To determine the CPP and DPP portions of trade receivables sold during a monthly period, an entity considers the cumulative activity that has occurred during the month. The entity’s assessment under this view is aligned with the frequency of disbursements associated with the monthly settlements from the escrow account applicable to the seller’s transactional activity with the securitization entity. Thus, if the cash available from a particular day’s collections of previously sold trade receivables is not sufficient to fund the maximum advance rate on that day’s trade receivables sold to the securitization entity, that deficit will still be reported as an operating activity if there is a sufficient excess of subsequent collections on previously sold trade receivables over the maximum advance rate for those trade receivables subsequently sold to the securitization entity. However, in no situation would the operating cash flows (CPP) portion during a monthly settlement period exceed the maximum advance rate applicable to trade receivables sold during that monthly period.
Pending clarification of the ASU’s guidance from the FASB or SEC, we believe that either view is acceptable. If the guidance is clarified, we will update this Financial Reporting Alert and provide transition considerations.
View the rest of the Financial Reporting Alert.
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