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Implementation of the Multilateral Convention

Status of the Multilateral Convention

The impact of implementation of the anti-tax treaty abuse measures under the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) project have had far-reaching consequences. The implications of certain BEPS Actions are still being worked through, particularly in relation to the multilateral instrument (MLI or Convention). The MLI constitutes a major change to international taxation and will enable international tax authorities around the world to challenge transactions and structures on a new basis.

OECD Multilateral Instrument Status Tracker

What is the MLI?

The MLI is one of the 15 Actions from the OECD BEPS action plan. It enables quick and consistent implementation of the tax treaty recommendations that follow from the BEPS project, namely hybrid mismatches (Action 2), tax treaty abuse (Action 6), permanent establishments (Action 7) and dispute resolution (Action 14).

The MLI will apply alongside a tax treaty and modify its application by allowing participating jurisdictions to adopt the BEPS recommendations without having to renegotiate each relevant treaty.

Status of the MLI as of 26 November 2019

As of 26 November 2019, 92 jurisdictions have committed to participate in the MLI (the list of signatories can be found on the OECD website). In addition, five countries have expressed their intention to join the MLI: Algeria, Eswatini (former Swaziland), Lebanon, Montenegro and Thailand.

Out of the 92 jurisdictions, 37 have ratified the MLI and deposited their instruments of ratification with the OECD. The MLI articles are effective in 2019 for the 151 jurisdictions shown in bold below:

Australia Austria Belgium Canada Curaçao
Denmark Finland France Georgia Guernsey
Iceland India Ireland Isle of Man Israel
Jersey Latvia
Lithuania Luxembourg
Mauritius Monaco
New Zealand
Russia2 Serbia Singapore
Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden1 Switzerland2 UAE
UK Ukraine      

1 Although the MLI is in force in Sweden from 1 January 2019, it still must complete the internal procedures before the MLI will be effective in its entirety.

2 Russia and Switzerland must also complete their internal procedures before the MLI articles will be effective in those countries.

Next steps

The MLI will affect more than 1,600 tax treaties, and it is therefore critical for multinational enterprises and private equity funds to analyze and understand how the MLI will impact cross-border dividend, interest, and royalty transactions, and existing business operations. Find out more about the impact and implementation of the MLI by reviewing the status tracker.

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