What drives such pride, passion, and joy—in a word, love—for a city? Too often, the qualities that inspire love may be viewed as intangible and unquantifiable. But there are identifiable attributes that make a city lovable, and city planners and governments can shape those attributes to help the city and its citizens form an emotional bond. That emotional bond, in turn, can deliver benefits to individuals and institutions alike, chief among them happiness. After all, more and more of us are living in cities every year,1 and the more we can relate to our cities, the more vibrant our lives will be.
There’s more to being lovable than being livable and smart
The impulse to rehumanize cities amid rapid change is not new. Jane Jacobs’ battle with Robert Moses, where Jacobs mobilized grassroots opposition to Moses’ plans to build interstates through New York neighborhoods, is one of the more prominent examples where the desire to humanize cities—or keep them human—has clashed with efforts to modernize them.2 These days, technology and an obsession with convenience dominate conversations on city revitalization. It’s important to bring the relational aspects of dense urban environments back into prominence.
Most urban planners, as well as the general public, evaluate cities on two main dimensions. One is livability, a city’s ability to satisfy its citizens’ pragmatic physical, social, and professional needs. Livability is measured on factors such as safety, mobility options, employment and educational opportunities, public space, and political stability. More recently, much of the discourse on cities has revolved around making cities smart. The focus here is on deploying broadband and other technologies, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and the internet of things, to do everything from manage traffic to improve security surveillance to allow citizens to report accumulated trash or snow using their smartphones.
Both livability and smartness are foundational to lovability. Basic infrastructure and services should be in place, and going about one’s daily life should be reasonably easy and pleasant. And we should unquestionably use advanced technology to help improve quality of life and alleviate issues such as congestion and crime.
However, lovability also relies on a third attribute that’s often overlooked. That attribute is human connection: a city’s ability to foster community and evoke a sense of belonging. Though it may be less concrete than livability or smartness, human connection is no less important because that’s where the social and emotional components of lovability, those feelings of pride, passion, and joy, spring from.
A city can be human in many ways
Teasing out being human from being livable and smart is somewhat artificial, since the three domains overlap and, ideally, positively reinforce each other. That said, research led by the DesignSingapore Council has identified six key attributes that contribute to being a human city: inclusion, connection, attachment, stimulation, freedom, and agency.3 While individuals may experience these attributes differently depending on factors such as their socioeconomic status, gender identity, ethnicity, (dis)ability, immigration status, and sexual orientation, all of the attributes are related and interact with one another to create different levels and types of humanness.
A city’s residents need to feel included for the city to feel human. This is true on both a social level, meaning acceptance by other residents, and a legal level, meaning the universal extension of social rights and the provision of basic services.
Many cities may find that promoting inclusion is a challenge. For instance, Western European cities have historically performed well on inclusion metrics due to their comprehensive social security nets and abundant employment opportunities. But recent widespread social unrest between those who consider themselves natives and newly arrived migrants is an indicator that overarching narratives around social inclusion might need to be revisited. Furthermore, hate crimes have been on the rise in countries as far-flung as New Zealand, the United States, China, and Israel. The United States, for example, has seen a resurgence of hostility toward ethnic minorities, sparking movements such as Black Lives Matter and Stop Asian Hate in protest. These grassroots campaigns constitute efforts of reconciliation—attempts to raise awareness and increase the inclusion of minority voices in civic society.
Inclusion also extends beyond new migrants and race to all edges of society, from the LGBTQ community to the elderly. All of these individuals must feel welcomed and safe for them to experience their city as lovable.
Connection embodies how well a city facilitates the creation of social bonds, which can lead to a feeling of closeness to and affection for others in the city.
Urban planners can do a great deal to facilitate community through infrastructural design. Designing open spaces with porous perimeters, for instance, encourages social interaction by inviting passers-by to join. But it’s also important not to be overly prescriptive. Restraint from overplanning allows for citizens to take ownership of their neighborhoods and develop connections in their own authentic manner.
Superkilen park in Copenhagen, Denmark, incorporates an eclectic mix of furnishings from all over the world, including a picnic table from Armenia, a swing set from Baghdad, and three tons of soil from the Palestinian territories. These elements were chosen by the community to cultivate points of discussion and learning among visitors. In this way, the park was designed to bridge the gaps between diverse neighborhoods. On the other hand, the favelas of Rio de Janeiro achieve the same thing without having been deliberately planned. The improvised design of favela streets, with their long and winding staircases that meander between and around homes, facilitates interaction between the favelas’ inhabitants. These examples demonstrate that city design, whether planned or fortuitous, can increase connection between citizens anywhere.
Attachment differs from connection in that it refers to the affinity that people feel for the city rather than for each other. It’s a city’s ability to cultivate a sense of familiarity and rootedness with the city. Typically, residents who have lived in a city for longer feel a greater sense of such attachment.
Attachment is strongly related to the unique aspects of a city’s identity, meaning that it arises out of what a city does differently, rather than the aspects that it has in common with its neighbors. In Southeast Asia, for instance, food is often a badge of identity. It’s not uncommon to hear Malaysians and Singaporeans arguing about whether Penang or Singapore has the best char kway teow.
Policymakers worldwide have struggled with navigating the varied attachment levels of newcomers to a city. There are, however, some bright spots. For the past 40 years, Australia has pursued a policy of multiculturalism that’s encouraging new migrants to embrace both Australian and other cultural identities on an equal basis. Importantly, newly arrived migrants are supported by comprehensive national policies that provide significant financial investment into their integration into the broader community, assisting with translation, providing English classes, and funding community initiatives, thus cultivating a sense of connection. Sydney is an example of a city that embodies this ethos: It evidences high levels of attachment despite many of its residents being foreign-born.
Paradoxically, part of the reason is the emergence of ethnic enclaves in which different ethnic groups concentrate their cultural activities. Sydney’s Fairfield district is home predominantly to Iraqi and Syrian Christians, whereas part of southwest Sydney is now known as “Little Athens” for its Greek community. Allowing such enclaves to form allows newly arrived migrant communities to remain connected to their roots, increasing their attachment to the city by providing a welcoming context in which they can express their uniquely diasporic identities.
Stimulation is the excitement a city cultivates among its population. A stimulating city keeps its residents excited about what each new day brings, providing widely accessible opportunities for exploration, leisure, socializing, and learning. To ensure that cities are stimulating, local governments need to take creativity seriously. Without the support of the creative industries, night life and entertainment, which are vital cultural assets, could be lost forever.
London is an example of an already stimulating city that has explicitly committed to maintaining its position as one of the most exciting cities in the world. In addition to maintaining a strong commitment to diversity, the metropolis highly values creativity: It’s home to more than 250 museums and art galleries, many of which are free to the public. Further, in 2016, London appointed its first Night Czar,4 whose sole responsibility is to ensure that the city is just as vibrant during the night as it is during the day. The role has pioneered initiatives such as the Night Tube, which initiated 24-hour public transportation on Fridays and Saturdays, measures to support queer venues such as nightclubs, and reviews of licensing approval processes to attract diversity within London’s nightlife venues.
For a city to be lovable, residents should feel free to be and express themselves. This can be one of the more difficult characteristics to achieve, as the factors that affect the feeling of freedom differ from person to person.
Throughout the years, large cities have attracted those who do not conform to social norms. During World War II, gay sailors were routinely expelled from the navy at the ports of San Francisco, leading many to settle in the area. Further migration of gay individuals to the city resulted in San Francisco establishing itself as the United States’ queer capital through the mid-20th century. Its progressive attitudes have since evolved into a culture of acceptance that goes beyond gender identity and sexual orientation.
One reason people may feel a sense of freedom in a city is the anonymity that their large populations provide. Nowadays, though, the concept of freedom has progressed beyond anonymity towards acceptance. For this reason, freedom overlaps largely with inclusion. Authorities should consider focusing on cultivating acceptance across the community through education to allow residents, including minorities, to feel free to be themselves.
Agency is a measure of empowerment, the extent to which people believe that they’re able to influence change within their cities. This perception is often greatly influenced by how inclusive a city is in its decision-making around policies. Achieving this inclusion, however, may be difficult in cities whose leaders and citizens have more pressing concerns. The tendency to deprioritize agency is a particular challenge in poorer cities, where escaping poverty is the primary concern.
Though civic agency often manifests in a democratic, participatory model, some city populations can achieve a sense of agency even without directly democratic mechanisms. This is more often the case in monolithic societies where people feel represented by those in power simply because their interests may align. Data from the World Values Survey,5 a global study of people’s beliefs, values, and motivations, exemplifies this tendency in Beijing and Shanghai. When respondents were asked to rank four priorities from a list that also included strong defense, economic growth, and maintaining a beautiful environment, only 18% of Beijing respondents and about 14% of Shanghai respondents mentioned communal decision-making as one of their top two priorities. This is considerably lower than the average of all 22 cities surveyed, across which 47% of respondents identified public decision-making as a top priority.
Policymakers should be careful to account for varying conceptions of agency. The type of decision-making that’s typically thought of as being conducive to agency in the West is not universally valued. While some people find agency in representation in political decision-making, others may find it in the freedom of economic choice.